Energic 409 Motoculteur available from 1945
The new concept of all in house design and maufactured multiculteur was worked on from initial concept, drawing board to production prototypes between 1939 and 1940. The first full production model manufactured was the 409 (500cc) 3V, which was of a complete in house design and manufacture. (This was after many prototypes where tested including a 407 motoculteur 5cv and 7cv with a smaller 350/400cc engine/moteur.) This was the first time Energic had manufactured its own engines as well as the chassis etc. A huge step forward for efficiency of production, costs etc. This also included design developments including the integration of all the component parts for the wheel clutches over came a historical problem in the C7 and D9 ranges before the war. (That of the ingress of mud, dirt etc, eroding the wheel hubs, clutch movement pins and general wear). Placing these parts internally ment they could be adequately lubricated and protected for the wear and tear of active duty.
I have seen an order dating from June 1942 for the New Energic 409 awaiting homologué, with information showing authorizations relating the New 409 as early as 20 May 1941.
Bon De Commande dated 1/3/1940 for a Energic D9.
Interestingly I have a 409 manual dated and printed “May 1945“.
And a “catalogue des piéces détachées” dated 1946.
This very early Energic 409 motoculteur model had a open trap door on top of the hood for access, in the initial design. This was dropped in later models as the 409 evolved. Mr Patissier had looked at the overall design, and had incorporated the strength and structures of the tractors of that time. With a strong chassis, engine and versatile multi disc oil bath clutch this Energic motoculteur was the basis of all to follow. There where also numerous engineering solutions and innovations on these early machines, overcoming some of the fundamental problems inherent in the early B5, C7 and D9 machines.
This was followed by the Energic 411 motoculteur 11cv (700cc) in 1949/50 – see page on the 411 motoculteur here.
Engine. Single cylinder Patissier engine, 9cv, 500cm3, air cooled, four stroke with enclosed Lateral valves (soupapes latérales).
Lubrication. By constant circulation of oil held within the sump of the engine, 3.5 litres. The circulation pressure being attained from crankcase compression.
Cooling. One large aluminium fan which is mounted at the front of the engine, running on ball bearings. This system draws air into the hood circulating around the engine, ensuring cooling. this system was tested in extreme high temperatures and proved effective.
Starting. By hand crank, either direct on to the motor, or via the multiplicateur. Both located at the front of the engine.
Magneto/Magnéto. Morel CT – 1 or Lavallete, as standard equipment (also Bosch and Novi brands where used between 1945 and the 1960’s to a lesser extent).
Air filter/Cleaner. Metallic element – (dependent upon the element that can be oil surface coated).
Carburetor/Carburateur. Zenith 26 TH, standard. (later models sometimes had a Zenith 28 RXZ – first installed in the 511, 411 tracteurs and motoculteurs – as a replacement repair).
The Zenith 26TH carburetor stripped down to component parts.
Gears. The three speed gear box is built within the engine offering 2 variation s either 3 forward and 1 reverse or 6 forward and 3 reverse gears.
Reverse. 3 speeds are available in reverse depending upon the options. The application of reverse gear lifts the plough out of the ground. This is also used for maneuvering the motoculteur.
Clutch. Multiple disc type immersed in oil, within the chassis casing. PTO; front (revolving at the speed of the engine), side and rear (turning between 125 and 1800 rp/m). ( PTO rear and side options).
Speeds. With 1st gear giving 1.81kmph, 2nd – 2.49kmph, 3rd – 3.39kmph, 4th 5.79kmph, 5th 7.74kmph and 6th gear giving 10.45kms per hour. @ 2000 rpm.
Exhaust/Silencer. Fitted in a frontal position, away from the driver.
Steering. Independent wheel clutches makes steering very easy. De-clutching one wheel, and using reverse gear allows the motoculteur to be turned in its own width without undue effort.
Wheels. 3 options; Pneumatic Dunlop CR Tyre wheels 750 x 18 for ploughing (labour) and 650 x 16 or T 32 for drilling ( Fraisage), metal paddle wheels and spud/rounded spikes metal wheels. (special smaller Marachère metal wheels of 50 cms could be additionally ordered for the adaption rotivator and 70 cms for ploughing). Blockage independent for each wheel. Wheel width is regular-able between 64 cms and 85 cms in 9 settings. In metal wheels 53 cms to 83 cms.
Hitch. Articulated pivoted strengthened bar, Breveté system S.G.D.G. (patented in France and the UK), with universal fitment to all ancillary equipment. Enabling the adjustment of draft and other characteristics required to operate the implements at different depths.
Plowing depth. Up to 12 ins (30,48 cms) dependent upon soil conditions.
Fuel consumption. 1 1/4 to 1 1/2 liters of fuel per hour dependent upon working conditions. The tank holds approx. 9 liters.
Dimensions. 2.6m long
Optional equipment for Energic motoculteur 409 models; Rotivator/Fraise, High pressure reservoir for the the treatment of fruit trees/pulvérisateur haute pression pour le traitement des arbes fruitiers. Trailer/remorquages.
PTO operating front of the motoculteur;
Jauge d’huile du moteur.
Chassis, showing the strength of the design for the 409 motoculteur.
Energic 409 model adaption options;
This adaption can be mounted quickly onto a rear PTO.The dents are 75 cms, with the width of 80 cms.
Extra weight was sometimes required in hard/compact soil to enable the rotivator to bite and not bounce on the tougher surfaces.
These high pressure systems where used for spraying vines and fruit trees.
The system on the left hand side (system 102) for clients with fruit trees. A tender of 200 liters, towed, operated from the PTO lateral could operate 2 lances at high pressure.
The system on the right hand side (system 103) for clients with fruit trees and vines, it is very easy to assemble and separate from the motoculteur (10 seconds was the boast from Energic).. The towed unit is the sprayer and is independent when powered up from the motoculteur.
This adaption was one previously used on animals (horses, cattle), here just supplying the pulling power with a Energic motoculteur.
Energic motoculteur abroad in Africa!
The following implements where available across the 400 series starting on the 409 of 1946 and used through out the production history;
Specialist lifters and cutters
Hitches/Attachments – sulkys
Energic Motoculteur 409, 9CV, converted to 4 wheels, Blockage differential, 3 speed forward and 1 reverse.
Here is another odd ball 409 with a Citroën motor!
Great stuff old 409’s never die they just get converted!
Energic 409 motoculteur awaiting a restoration.
Fancy a electric start.
Modified for a electric start. Just reverse the fuel tank then you have space for the battery!
***Technical illustrations/machine breakdown from “Catalogue des pièces détachées” – parts manual***
- )Embiellage, 2) Cylindre, Décompresseur, Capot, Support, Pot d’échappement, 3) Carter moteur et distribution.
4) Carter avant, Magneto, Pares-chocs, 5) Embrayage, 6) Pompe à huile.
7) Ventilateur, 8) Boite des vitesses, 9) Couvercle de la boite des vitesses.
10) Pont arrière, 11) Couvercle du pont arrière, 12) Réservoir d’essence et ses supports,
13) Mancherons et commandes,14) Filtre à air, 15) Secteur d’attelage.
16) Potence, 17) Port-outils, 18) Roues.
19) Coffre à outils et outillage.
Between 1940 and 1945 there where approx 100/150 motoculteurs manufactured, painted totally in red. After 1945 the colour scheme was altered to a beige/cream wheels permutation.4300+ Energic 409 Motoculteurs where manufactured from 1940 to the 1960’s, with serial numbers running from 3000 to approx.7300. So some 4300 Energic 409 motoculteurs where manufactured, and many still are hard at work today ploughing, rotivating and working the earth as they did in the early 1940’s.
Read more about Energic model history here.
Read more about the Energic Motoculteiur 410 here.
Read more about the Energic motoculteur 411 here.
Read more about the Energic 412 motoculteur here.
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